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Interview with Greg Kroah-Hartman – Linux Kernel Dev/Maintainer

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Interview with Greg Kroah-Hartman – Linux Kernel Dev/Maintainer

Post  Optitech on Sun Jan 17, 2010 6:22 am

If anyone knows Linux kernel driver
development, it's Greg Kroah-Hartman, who's
been working deep in Linux for over a decade. In this interview, Greg
talks about how the Linux project has accommodated the accelerating rate of
change for the kernel, and offers some insight on where Linux is headed.

Scott Swigart: Can you please introduce yourself and your association with

Greg Kroah-Hartman: Sure. I’m a Novell fellow, and I’m working on the Linux
kernel with the SUSE Labs division at Novell.

I’ve been doing Linux kernel work
for more than 10 years now. I’m a maintainer of several different subsystems,
including USB, the driver core, and some other minor things. I’m also
responsible for releasing the stable Linux kernels. I used to be a maintainer
of a lot of other driver subsystems and such over the years, but I’ve
thankfully handed them off to other people.

Scott: Let me start with a really big-picture question, since
you’ve been involved in Linux for a long time. Obviously, there’s still lots of
stuff happening on the mailing list, but fundamentally, the way code makes it
into the kernel hasn’t really changed, and yet the scale of development is much
larger than it was, say, five years ago.

How have you seen Linux kernel
development change to handle the scale of the effort that’s going on today?

Greg: I’ve been tracking this for over five years now, and we’ve
gotten a lot better. There are a lot more people doing the work.

To give an example, for the 2.5 to
2.6 kernel development series, which took about two years, the top 30 people
did 80 percent of the work. Now, the top 30 people do 30 percent of the work.
The sheer number of developers has also increased. We were running a couple
hundred developers, and now we’re running a couple thousand.

Scott: How does that get managed? Are there more layers in the

Greg: We’ve invented some tools to help us out a lot. It used to
be that Linus was the only one who could commit anything, or who would accept
anything. It was all done through email.

And then BitKeeper was developed,
and a number of us started using that. It was very nice, because we had a much
faster feedback loop with Linus. I could have him pull 50 patches, see that he
pulled them, and then I could hit him with another 50 patches, if I wanted to,
within a day. Before, we had a lag of a couple of weeks.

Then, when we couldn’t use BitKeeper
anymore, Linus wrote Git, and then that just increased it even more, because
everybody can use Git. Our development model increased its capacity, and part
of that was that we started trusting more people. Now we have subsystem
maintainers and such.

As I said, I maintain the subsystems
such as USB, and I have people who I trust enough that if they send me a patch,
I’ll take it, no questions asked. Because the most important thing is I know
that they will still be around in case there’s a problem with it. [laughs]

And then I send stuff off to Linus.
So, Linus trusts 10 to 15 people, and I trust 10 to 15 people. And I’m one of
the subsystem maintainers. So, it’s a big, giant web of trust helping this go

We’ve developed some procedures that
help guide how and when we do merges and releases. And we’ve a very regular
release schedule: every three months, we do a release. We have a two-week merge
window, and all those patches in that merge window have to have been tested.
We’ve gotten the development process down really well over the past four years.

We’re also increasing the rate of
change in our development. The same amount of work one of the top 10 developers
did last year wouldn’t have even made it into the top 20 this year. Our
individual developers have got the work flow down, so we can actually
contribute more, to an extent that’s amazing.

Scott: I understand that one of the things you’re involved with is
the Linux Driver Project. It seems like there was a certain tension between
Linux and certain hardware vendors, in the sense that, for a long time,
hardware vendors had been really used to not shipping driver code.

They were used to shipping for
Windows, and they didn’t have to be involved with drivers. They just provided
an installer. And then, as Linux started to become a lot more popular in the
server space and make some inroads in the desktop space, they wanted access to
that market.

There was kind of a culture shift in
a lot of companies to realize how to provide things like drivers in a way that
matched with what the Linux community expected. Take the example of some
hypothetical Acme hardware vendor that wants to submit a driver but has never
done it before. What does the process look like?

Greg: First, people need to realize that our driver model is
different than other operating systems, because all our drivers ship with the
kernel. The license requires our drivers to be open, so everything is in the
main kernel tree.

Because of our huge rate of change,
they pretty much have to be in the kernel tree. Otherwise, keeping a driver
outside the kernel is technically a very difficult thing to do, because our
internal kernel APIs change very, very rapidly.

In other operating systems, APIs
change more slowly, since their development process is comparatively very slow.
So, it makes sense, from a technical standpoint and just to save money, to get
your code into the kernel. It is maintained that way, and when changes happen
within the kernel, your driver code will be fixed for you. If I have to change
an API, I change it everywhere.

That approach also lets us see
commonality. If see that a driver’s doing the same thing as another driver, I
might merge them together in the shared core. That way, everybody benefits. The
new driver gets smaller and easier to maintain.

That’s happened a lot. We’ve merged
a lot of drivers from a lot of different companies, and everybody’s happy about
that. The companies are happy, the users are happy with the smaller code base,
and it’s easier to maintain.

The Linux Driver Project started out
because of the perception that Linux doesn’t support many devices. It turns out
that Linux supports all devices out there. There’s really nothing manufactured
today that Linux doesn’t support, in a major consumer market. There are some
one-offs, like some small video-capture devices I know of that we don’t have
support for, but people are actually working on those.

The initial goal of the Linux Driver
Project was to remove all barriers that could possibly be there, which were
mostly managerial. To attain that goal, we said that we will write and maintain
any driver for free for any company.

It turned out that not very many
companies really needed that. A few niche markets needed it, and we’re writing
some drivers for them, but most companies had existing drivers floating around
inside their company. Their challenge was typically that they needed to get it
into the kernel tree, and they didn’t know how.

So, the Linux Driver Project, over
the past couple years, has just been a big educational thing. I work with the
companies and show them how to get the code in. I maintain the code, massage it
and get it cleaned up, and then merge it into the kernel tree. That’s been the
majority of the work we’ve been doing over the past two years.

We’ve also now codified a few ways
that we can play in the kernel. We can accept code into the kernel that doesn’t
meet our normal standards into a staging area. Everybody can clean it up there,
and then the code graduates into the real stuff. That’s worked out really well.

Scott: That makes good sense, because someone coming in from the
outside isn’t necessarily going to know everything from coding standards to the
best practices for doing things the right way.

And so what you’re saying is that
you’ve got a place to get that code in, where people who know the right way to
do things can look for things that can be factored out of drivers, drivers that
can be merged, and that kind of stuff.

It doesn’t force every hardware
vendor or everybody who needs to get a driver into the kernel to be a Linux
driver development expert. Do I have that right?

Greg: Yeah, although we do have lots of documentation now. We
have free books on how to write Linux drivers, and we have documentation of
things like our coding style and how to submit code. If people don’t know where
it is, we’ll point them in the right direction. In case anyone’s curious, it
all starts in a file called HOWTO in the kernel, so they can start there.

Even though we do have those
education tools, though, we will also work with companies that want it. We have
lots of people who have done this work before and who will do it for you.

It’s a great place for people
wanting to get involved in the kernel to start out, because they can just run a
script to find some errors and go fix them. We have people that have started
off just wanting to get involved who have ended up maintaining whole drivers
and subsystems over time.

Still, in the end, my goal is
actually to work with engineers from those companies and have them maintain and
own it, so they become full-fledged members of the kernel community. That’s the
only way we’re going to grow, and it’s working. The number of companies
involved in the kernel has grown year over year.

Companies want to get the most value
out of Linux, so I counsel them that they should drive the development of their
driver and of Linux as a whole in the direction that they think makes the most
sense. If they rely on Linux and feel that Linux is going to be part of their
business, I think they should become involved so they can help change it for
the better.

Scott: That makes sense. In a different area, I saw somewhere that
around half of the Linux code that’s being contributed nowadays is driver code.
Do I have that right?

Greg: That’s the percentage. Like I said, everything’s in the
kernel itself. We’re at something like six or seven million lines of code, and
over 50 percent of those lines of code are drivers.

I think 30 percent is
architecture-specific stuff, for things like processors and networking. The
core kernel is like five percent of the overall code. Those numbers have stayed
pretty much the same over the past four or five years.

We change something like 5,000 lines
a day, which is just scary. Fifty percent of that change will be in the
drivers, and five percent will be in the core kernel. In other words, the
kernel is being modified everywhere at that rate of change.

Scott: Do I understand correctly that the core kernel is memory
management, process scheduling, and those kinds of fundamental things that an
OS has to do?

Greg: Exactly. Basic system calls, memory management, scheduling,
and inter-process communications.

And the only reason we’re changing
is because people want that change. It’s not like we’re sitting there and
going, “Hey! Let’s rewrite the scheduler again!”


We’re doing this stuff because we
have to in order to survive, because people want it and because people need it.
We do it for fun, but we don’t gratuitously change things. A big part of what
drives that change is that what Linux is being used for is evolving. We’re the
only operating system in something like 85 percent of the world’s top 500
supercomputers today, and we’re also in the number-one-selling phone for the
past year, by quantity.

It’s the same exact kernel, and the
same exact code base, which is pretty amazing. Nobody’s ever created something
like this before. And we’re doing it in a way that doesn’t follow the
traditional software design methodologies, which is fun.

I go and talk at a lot of colleges,
and they’re changing their education system based on how the kernel has changed
development models for large-scale systems.

Scott: Like you mentioned, the kernel runs on some of the smallest
devices, as well as some of the largest. What makes that work is a lot of stuff
that is or isn’t included, whether you’ve got fairly bare-metal, embedded
systems, or whether you’ve got desktops and music players, or whether you’ve
got systems that are optimized for number crunching.

The kernel is an interesting thing.
When you talk to people who aren’t really in the Linux space, they often don’t
make a big distinction between the Linux kernel and a Linux distro. There’s a
huge distinction though, right? The kernel is a fairly small piece of a distro.

Greg: Sure, but consider Android, which threw away everything
from Linux except the kernel, and they built something totally new on top of
it. That’s a great proof point that the Linux kernel itself has to be really,
really flexible to let people do something like that. It still meets the needs
of a very big market, which is pretty funny to watch. From an engineering
standpoint it was a pretty neat hack.

Scott: Give us some sense of the kinds of people who are
contributing to the Linux kernel. Obviously, there are hardware vendors. The
distros out there are contributing–Red Hat and Novell, for instance, are big
contributors. Give me a sense of the categories of contributors working on the

Greg: You’ve got a pretty good short list there. Some distros
contribute; some do not, and the same is true of hardware companies. Intel has
come on like crazy this past couple of years, and they’re now one of the major
contributors to Linux. Consulting groups and educational institutions play a
big role as well.

There are also a lot of companies
that just modify code for one-off little things, making support better in their
hardware. Linux runs on yahts for a lot of automatic pilot steering things, and
we’ve had some contributions from there.

More than five or ten percent of the
US’s power is generated on turbines that are controlled by systems based on
Linux, and those guys contribute some changes they need. It’s also interesting
that 20-25 percent of all of our contributions by quantity are done by people
that have no affiliation with anything.

Scott: The proverbial guy in his basement or dorm room or

Greg: Yeah. They needed something fixed, so they did it and moved
on. The quantity there is still large, but on the other hand, 75 to 80 percent
is done by people who are getting paid to do it.

Scott: What do you feel like is driving change? You mentioned
Intel, and Linux seems kind of tailor made for a chip company, because it
provides a great opportunity to put new things in a processor or a chip set.
Contributing to Linux lets them build support for those kinds of things and to
see how they are behaving in a real production operating system.

I can kind of see that new hardware
architectures and capabilities drive a certain amount of change in the Linux
kernel. I can just see the creation of new peripherals driving a certain amount
of change. What other types of change drive the Linux kernel forward?

Greg: Well, those two are major. New hardware accounts for the
majority of our changes. We get more processors with more and more cores. We
had to do a lot of work to make, 8-, 16-, and 32-way machines run really well,
and now we’re running 8000 processor machines really well. The scalability is
there, and I actually know of people who have booted larger ones, but we’re not
allowed to talk about it.

USB 3.0 was sponsored by Intel, and
it was shown on Linux first–the first implementation of any operating system.
Intel gets their hardware working well fast, and working with the Linux
community lets them get it out to developers and other people who are making
devices fast. The fact that they can do it for Linux much faster than they can
for other operating systems is a huge driving factor for what we need to do for
things like 10 Gigabit Ethernet or 40 Gigabit Ethernet.

Some of those speeds have required
major changes to the way we do networking and the way we handle processes or
data flowing through the kernel. We also have to accommodate workload issues,
like real-time workloads, which required big changes to the scheduler and the
way we do locking and the way we do other things merged in.

Note that those are all requirements
driven by people who are using Linux. The real-time guys want to use operating
systems like Linux for their stuff. It also drives Wall Street and the Chicago
Mercantile Exchange and the Tokyo Exchange and the London Stock Market.

Scott: What do you see on the horizon, in terms of hardware use
cases that aren’t quite mainstream or available yet but that are going to drive
some additional kind of significant change all the way down to the level of the

Greg: 40 Gigabit Ethernet is going to need some changes, and the
networking guys are actually working on that already. There are also going to
be more and more cores, better real time operation, and USB 3.0. The USB 3.0
devices aren’t out yet, so once we start seeing more of those, we’ll start
seeing optimizing things there. SSDs are great; they’re growing fast.

People seem to forget that changes
they want to the kernel that it seems like no one else will want very often end
up being valuable to a lot of people. For example, maybe the embedded group
makes some power management changes, and it turns out that the server guys
really want that, too. Then the server guys want better scalability, and it
turns out that the embedded guys love those scalability changes, because
they’re running dual-core ARM systems now.

Part of what’s helped us make things
work is that it turns out that a lot of changes benefit everybody. We’ve become
such a flexible operating system by requiring changes to work for everything, and
it’s made everything work even better.

There are lots of power management
changes in the pipeline to be reworked that help address a lot of the issues
the embedded guys have come up with that servers traditionally don’t have. In
servers, you can’t shut off that many discrete components, whereas in embedded,
you can pretty much shut off every single discrete component in your system,
depending how much you want to do with it.

Scott: I remember when we talked to the OLPC guys, one of their
requirements was to be able to go to sleep, but not lose the network

Greg: Mesh networking, right?

Scott: Yes. And they also needed super-aggressive power
management, because they wanted to get the most battery life possible, because
power is such a big issue in developing countries. If I remember correctly,
they were actually putting the processor in a sleep state between keystrokes.

Greg: That’s right; they were, but it turns out that the hardware
guys can do it better. If you look at more modern processors, the hardware is
putting itself to sleep faster. In modern PCs and these new netbooks, the OS
really doesn’t have control of the power management stuff anymore, because the
hardware can do it better.

It turns out it’s better to run as
fast as possible to get your work done, then go to sleep, than to run your CPU
at medium speed. The hardware guys realize this, and they know they can handle
their workloads better than the operating system can.

Scott: I don’t want to mischaracterize it, and I am intentionally
overstating this to some extent, but when you talk to people at Intel, they
always say, “Well, that should be in silicon.” It’s kind of like there’s this
drive to put more and more and more in silicon, but at the same time, obviously
software is growing at a geometric rate.

Talk a little bit about that balance
between what ought to be in hardware and what ought to be in software, as well
as the notion that something that ought to be in one place today should maybe
be in the other a year or two from now.

Greg: The hardware guys are always like, “Oh, I can solve that in
hardware. Let me do that. You software guys aren’t ever going to get around to
doing this.” And part of that is true.

If you look at the software adoption
rates of some operating systems, it’s very, very slow. So, the fact that they
make a change to the hardware, and they can save power today in the new
processor, means that overall, the amount of power consumption in the world
goes down.

People run old versions of Linux and
other operating systems very frequently, so there’s sometimes an advantage to
solving a problem in both places. They can add it to the hardware, and then
they also add it to the software.

In the kernel, we know we typically
can’t change user space applications, so we have to make changes in order to
accommodate how they want to do things, even if we feel that they’ve done it
the wrong way. So, there’s also a tension there.

Some companies actually talk to the
engineers really, really well. Intel and IBM are very good at this. They sit
down, and they talk to the kernel people once a year. “Hey, this is what we’re
thinking of doing. How should we do this? How are we going to implement this?”
And they get feedback from us directly. And that’s turned out to be a very,
very valuable feedback loop.

It often works out very well in
terms of how chips are designed, and how the operating system will take
advantage of that. Hopefully, we’re all talking to all the right people, and
everybody’s interacting well.

Scott: Let me spin back to something you said very early on, which
is that basically that all hardware is supported in the Linux kernel, even
though there seems to be the perception that not all the hardware works.

Certainly, one of the things that
gets brought up is that if I buy a new device, it’ll come with a driver disk
that probably won’t have Linux drivers on it. Talk a little bit about where do
you feel like this disconnect comes from between the people working on the
drivers in the Linux kernel and those incorrect user perceptions, even from
people who are fairly experienced with Linux.

Greg: That perception has existed for many, many years. Back in
2006, I gave a big keynote showing how it was all wrong. Everything is
supported, but, yes, that complaint comes up a lot. I joke with Jim Zemlin of
the Linux Foundation about this issue all the time. If he publicly says, “We’re
still working on drivers,” I always say, “No, we’re done.”


So, there’s a disconnect there. Part
of the issue is that we support more devices than any other operating system
ever has. That’s a fact that’s been verified by other companies. The problem is
that people only care about the devices that they have. Therefore, if your
device doesn’t work for some reason, you don’t care how many thousands of other
devices out there work.

When I started the Linux driver
project, I’d been hearing this from all the major companies that were shipping
Linux and cared about Linux. So, I went around to them individually and said,
“OK, what do you need me to do? What needs to be worked on?”

Every single major hardware company,
said, “Hey, you’re right. Everything works on Linux. We’re fine.” That’s shown
by these companies that ship Linux on their machines. Dell, HP, and all the big
hardware companies and laptop manufacturers now ship Linux, and we’re working
with them.

Some of the disconnect is if you buy
a machine that doesn’t have Linux on it, getting it to work sometimes requires
weird BIOS tricks to get all the function keys working on a laptop, and things
like that. New hardware or hardware when you’re updating a system should work.
If not, then we messed up.

The graphics guys have issues that
they’ve been addressing to help make that work much better. Intel hardware
works wonderfully now on Linux. Their developers are very good. ATI and NVIDIA
both ship closed source drivers that work on all their devices. Those all work
and have very good support systems. The drivers aren’t in the kernel, but
they’re out there.

Anything storage related or
networking related has been working with Linux forever, and all new devices
support Linux too. They have to, because that’s what those markets are going

Then you get to the tiny consumer
devices, which is where I like having fun, because I do USB. I work really hard
to get everything supported, and we don’t know of anything these days that
isn’t. I was in Tokyo the other day for the Kernel Summit and walking around
Akihabara and trying to find devices that we don’t support. We had all the kernel
developers there and we couldn’t find anything.

I know there’s a disconnect, but if
you look on a mailing list for the Windows guys, they have a lot of driver
problems, where things aren’t working. Mac OS X does not support very many
devices at all.

If issues arise with exotic
configurations, I’ll be glad to work through them all. If something doesn’t
work, tell me so I know to fix it.

Scott: Is my perception correct that when hardware companies get
into Linux, they sometimes start out with a bare-bones driver? It seems that
often, the piece of hardware will work, but it won’t necessarily handle the
full spectrum of services like power management with the device. Then they’ll
provide more capabilities, gradually contributing code to use the device to its
full capabilities.

Am I at all accurate in that
perception, or is it more often the case that the driver they contribute offers
the same level of functionality as on any other OS?

Greg: You’re right. Some things don’t work, although we’ve made
it easier for companies to write a driver that will do everything, because we
put core functionality like power management into the core. Power management is
now handled by the core of the kernel, so you don’t have to add that. You just
have to add a few hooks in your driver and then you’re done.

The average driver for Linux is
about one third the size of an equivalent driver for another operating system,
so you have less code to write and maintain. Still, to your point, there are
some new devices that come out whose value add is that they do X and Y

Sometimes we don’t support that yet,
because the manufacturer didn’t tell us how to do it or we have to figure out
how to fit it into the Linux framework to support it properly. Those little
webcams are a very good example. New devices come out that can support features
like additional bit rates, frame sizes, or screen sizes, and we need to go and
add support to the core of the kernel to support those.

So, your statement is very fair, and
that contributes to the disgruntlement you’ll see on my face at times.


If a brand new device that says it
can do X, Y, and Z is only doing X on Linux, we immediately start to try to
figure out how to get it to do the other things. Sometimes, we just have to
work with the manufacturers to do that.

A lot of companies are getting
better at working with us to come out with drivers at the same time the
hardware comes out. Sometimes we lag by six months just by virtue of that fact
that Linux isn’t the first system they care about, so it takes us a while to
get it going. Also, if you’re using an older distro, you may need to switch

There are all sorts of configuration
issues there, which is why Jim Zemlin of the Linux Foundation continues to say
we need to work on driver development, and I agree with him there. There’s
always going to be work, so I think I have a lifetime job here.

Scott: Correct me if I’m wrong, but drivers never really leave the
kernel, right? Is it more or less true that that’s one of the reasons that
Linux supports old hardware so well? That once it’s in the kernel, it’s
probably going to be in the kernel for a very long time, so I can grab a
six-year-old laptop or six-year-old server, throw Linux at it, and have pretty
good confidence it’s going to work?

Greg: Yes, and actually that’s turned out to be a problem.
Because our kernel size is growing so much, we want to make changes, and we’re
running into places where we have drivers for hardware that we know hasn’t been
made in the past ten years. It can be complicated to excise those pieces.

That came up at the kernel summit
last week, and actually, I am going to be working on that. We’re going to move
drivers that we think are broken if we are pretty sure that nobody out there
uses them anymore. We’ll move those into the staging tree, keep them there for
about a year, and if nobody complains, then we’ll remove them.

On the other hand, if anybody shows
up and says they need one of those drivers, we can use our source code tool to
restore and test it. If there is at least one user of an old device in the
world, I will gladly maintain the support.

Scott: We’ve covered a lot of great stuff, and now I want to turn
to a lazy interviewer trick and ask you what really interesting things I
haven’t asked about. In other words, I’d like for you to supply both the
insightful question and the brilliant answer.


Greg: Well, just to touch back on that rate of change that I
mentioned before, I just looked it up, and we add 11,000 lines, remove 5500
lines, and modify 2200 lines every single day.

People ask whether we can you keep
that up, and I have to tell you that every single year, I say there’s no way we
can go any faster than this. And then we do. We keep growing, and I don’t see
that slowing down at all anywhere.

I mean, the giant server guys love
us, the embedded guys love us, and there are entire processor families that
only run Linux, so they rely on us. The fact that we’re out there everywhere in
the world these days is actually pretty scary from an engineering standpoint.
And even at that rate of change, we maintain a stable kernel.

It’s something that no one company
can keep up with. It would actually be impossible at this point to create an
operating system to compete against us. You can’t sustain that rate of change
on your own, which makes it interesting to consider what might come after

For my part, I think the only thing
that’s going to come after Linux is Linux itself, because we keep changing so
much. I don’t see how companies can really compete with that.

Scott: Like you said, a lot of the rate of change in Linux as a
whole is due to changes in the drivers. It’s fairly unique to Linux that it
carries the drivers in the kernel, so as the ecosystem grows, you’ve got more
and more people contributing code to Linux.

That’s not the case with other
operating systems.

Greg: Right. And while that rate of change is consistent across
the whole thing, it’s also easier to write drivers. As I said before, your
driver for Linux is one third the size of your driver for Windows, so even at
this rate of change, writing a driver for Linux is less work than it is for
other operating systems.

In Linux, we’ve re-written our USB
stack three or four times. Windows has done the same thing, but they had to
keep their old USB stack and a lot of their old codes in order to work for
those old drivers. So, their maintenance burden goes up over time while ours

Also, as people change jobs, they
generally stay with the Linux kernel community. I’ve been doing USB work for
over 10 years now for Linux, and that’s a big body of knowledge. Within other
companies, engineers usually move around, and that body of knowledge doesn’t
necessarily stick around.

For driver maintainers and driver
authors within Linux, it does stick around. The networking guys have been doing
that work for 15 years with Linux, and they know this stuff in and out. They
can tell you what you need to change in your driver to make it work really

They’re unique, and they’ll help out
any company.

Scott: Thanks; we’re out of time, and that’s a good place to

Greg: All right. Thanks a lot; this was fun.

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Harap Maklum.

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Re: Interview with Greg Kroah-Hartman – Linux Kernel Dev/Maintainer

Post  olyy on Tue Jan 19, 2010 7:04 pm


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Re: Interview with Greg Kroah-Hartman – Linux Kernel Dev/Maintainer

Post  Optitech on Wed Jan 20, 2010 9:33 am


panjang giler nak baca beb!
aku baca pun tak habis..hahaha!



MAKLUMAN: Worksheet/Assignment Download Section hanya untuk pengguna berdaftar. Sila daftar untuk melakukan 'download'. Lepas dah click link, tekan kat perkataan "Skip Ad" bahagian atas belah kanan sekali. Pastu baru leh download.
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Re: Interview with Greg Kroah-Hartman – Linux Kernel Dev/Maintainer

Post  Miyavi on Wed Jan 20, 2010 2:16 pm

Optitech wrote:hehehe...

panjang giler nak baca beb!
aku baca pun tak habis..hahaha!

panjang sangat....sakit da mata ni nk baca ooo....ble tlog rngkaskn cete ni ke...??? 29 31 35

--Miyavi Kazuma--

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Re: Interview with Greg Kroah-Hartman – Linux Kernel Dev/Maintainer

Post  Admin on Tue Feb 09, 2010 4:56 am

aku pun tak larat nak baca ni hah..

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Re: Interview with Greg Kroah-Hartman – Linux Kernel Dev/Maintainer

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